Issue-Oriented Science: Using Socioscientific Issues to Engage Biology Students by Laura Lenz and Maia K. Willcox The American Biology Teacher 74(8):551-556. 2012 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/abt.2012.74.8.4
The SENCER models are curricular approaches to improving science learning and supporting engagement with complex issues. Through the "lens" of a matter or set of matters of public consequence, a SENCER model course or program teaches science that is both challenging and rigorous. The SENCER approach requires students to engage in serious scientific reasoning, inquiry, observation, and measurement. SENCER courses and programs connect scientific knowledge to public decision-making, policy development, and the effective "work" of citizenship. SENCER approaches encourage students to engage in research, to produce knowledge, to develop answers, as well as to appreciate the uncertainty and provisionality of the knowledge and answers produced.